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Literature Review Stress According to Oxford Advanced Learner's English - Chinese Dictionarystress defined as pressure or worry resulting from mental or physical distress, difficulties circumstances and et cetera.
In addition, Arnold et. The examples of physical symptoms of stress includes lack of appetite, headaches, cramps and muscle spasms, frequent crying or desire to cry and so on. Whereas the examples of behavioural symptoms includes lack of interest in life, loss of sense of humour, difficulty in concentrating and et cetera.
Some disease often relates to stress are hypertension, migraine, asthma and menstrual difficulties. Thus, stress can increase job dissatisfaction, anxiety and depression. In addition, relationships and interactions with colleagues, friends and families will be affected. The tertiary level of education institutions like universities and colleges has traditionally been regarded as a low stress occupation.
Even though academics are not highly paid, but they have been envied because of they enjoyed tenure, light workloads, flexibility, and Eliminate boredom and low job satisfaction psychology essay benefits such as overseas trips for study or conference purposes, and the freedom to pursue their own research interests.
For the past 20 years, these advantages have been eroded in many countries.
Moreover, many academic positions are now untenured, workloads have increased and academics are under pressure to attract external funds for their research Winefield, A study on college based placement co-ordinators in United Kingdom by Collins and Turunen has identified that those individuals have a demanding task, liaising with students, tutors and agency training sections so that an appropriate learning opportunities are provided.
Some placement co-ordinators concentrate narrowly on placement organization, while others occupy additional roles such as lecturing and tutoring.
According to them, as from the experience of one of them, placement co-ordinators have been concerned, for example, about the demands and difficulties of finding sufficient placements, matching student learning needs to placements and at the end of each placement reports and portfolios should be obtained.
Placement co-ordinators who have focussed on placement finding may have found themselves in marginalized roles in some academic settings which attach more importance to teaching, research and publication attempts.
In addition, they identified some social work agencies seems to view placement finding to be another low-priority demand on top of many others and decision making can be a slow process. Besides, complaints on social work programmes which provide only little information to agencies about students and courses those students take.
Apart from above paragraph, Collin and Turunen identified in their study that, challenge and pressure can actually improve individual's work performance.
But, continuously increased level of pressure can tend towards stress, whereby quality of one's work experience and health can be affected. Physical, psychological and behavioural symptoms can follow, when a person become stressed. Other than that, stress also gives impact on an individual's relationships with colleagues at work and interactions with friends and family members.
The general physical problems that often linked to stress are like heart disease, gastrointestinal conditions, allergies, skin complaints, sleep problems and headaches. Thus, these physical problems can lead to absences of such individuals at workplace.
According to Steyn and Kamperstudies on educator stress in South Africa, which were similar to other countries, proclaim that educators encounter various stressors in their work.
They also identified something new after they a research had conducted.
For instance, inclusive education, the abolition of corporal punishment, additional mediums of instruction, lack of discipline, learner problems, unmotivated learners, large learner-educator ratios, redeployment and retrenchment of educators, time pressure, threat of redundancy, inadequate salaries and the new curriculum system are common reasons to critics for the increasing levels of stress among South African educators.
Further on, Steyn and Kamper proposed occupational stress among educators is defined as the negative or unpleasant result of task demands that educators face in performing their professional roles and responsibilities. While facing great amount of individuals, social and professional responsibilities in today's fast-paced societies, educators are expected to execute a variety of activities.
This will result in their experience of stress. Moreover, they mentioned occupational stress occurs among educators when those educators are aware an imbalance between situational demands and their ability to respond adequately to the demands. Drastic and continuous level of stress might lead to a burnout condition.
In another study, Devonport, Biscomb and Lane identified a significant proportion of lecturers exposed to inadequate levels of stress encounter impaired physical, social and psychological functioning. If high levels of organisational stress not to be resolved, it will caused quality, productivity and creativity of employees' work to be decreased, and threatening employees' health, well-being and morale.
On the other hand, preventing high level of stress will preserve staff well-being and organisational productivity and performance.
Furthermore, organisational stress usually caused by the interaction between a worker's personal characteristics, environment factors, the demands placed towards them, and their ability to cope. The examples of an individual's personal characteristics might include personal goals, confidence, emotional intelligence and the like.
Levels of stress that expand within those parameters can reduce job performance.Job satisfaction is one of the most researched variables in the area of workplace psychology, and has been associated with numerous [[Psychosocial issues - the changing world of work]| organizational factors]] ranging from leadership to job design.
Using the Job Characteristics model, describe how specialised jobs can be modified to eliminate the boredom and low job satisfaction associated with them. (Chapter 9) According to the management text book Williams & McWilliams, , job specialisation reflects the degree to which tasks get.
Affective Events Theory (AET) is a model developed by organizational psychologists Howard M. Weiss (Purdue University) and Russell Cropanzano (University of Arizona) to explain how emotions and moods influence job performance and job satisfaction.
Low energy, chronic tiredness, excessive sleeping, and insomnia are common. Other possible symptoms of depression include poor appetite, heavy eating, weight loss or gain, feelings of inadequacy or worthlessness, anxiety, regrets, decreased productivity, poor concentration, or recurrent thoughts of .
Relationship Between Motivation And Job Satisfaction Essays. work role motivation thoughtsinfluencing both motivation for seekingknowledge and choice oftherapeutic relationship could developassociation of low job satisfaction and stressrelationship between Punctuality Is The Virtue Of The Bored Essay – ; Sport Studies Coursework.
Low job satisfaction, inefficient communication system, low organisational commitment and improper leadership are the key problems. Some of them strongly relate to high turnover and absenteeism rate, some of them moderately relate.