These exams will be a combination of essay, and identifications of terms, concepts, or persons. The essays will require you to marshal facts to answer questions on broader historical themes.
As with the other Baallike figures mentioned in the "Phoenician History", Demarous too is called Zeus. Here, however, the association is stronger, with Dernarous being called "king of the godsw-ruling over these other deities with the consent of Kronos PE 1.
Unlike his Ugaritic counterpart, however, Demarous is defeated by the sea god. One of the difficulties in assessing the value of the "Phoenician History" is the presence of several figures-noted above-each of whom possess at least some Baal-like qualities.
One explanation for this is the possibility that each of these figures represents the Baal of a distinct Local mythic tradition whose independence was preserved when Philo of Byblos compiled his work. At the end of the nineteenth century, W.
Smith set the tone for much of the discussion concerning Baal and the OT with his influential work, The Religzon of the Semites. Smith maintained that the authority of gods was essentially local with each deity being the "bacal" or "possessor" of a particular place or region.
These local b8cdim were essentially all fertility gods, distinguished one from another by the geographic name incorporated into their title e. Baal of Tyre, Baal Lebanon, etc.
The common basis upon which the authority of these various gods rested was their Hist 17b chap 26 email essay to make their particular temtory fruitful.
In the arid world that was the ancient Near East, these 12 On the ambiguity of this passage and the reasons for seeing Adodos as another name for Demarous, see Attridge and Odenn.
Baal and Yahweh in the Old Testament - Chapter One Page 10 deities ensured the fertility of the land by their control of the springs, streams and underground watercourses. Only as nomadic worshippers of these deities moved into areas that required irrigation by rainfall, did the b8cilim come to be known also as rain gods Smith For Smith, then, there was no one Baal par excellence but rather a plethora of minor fertility gods each of which was lord or baed of its own tiny domain.
At the beginning of this century, Paton and a number of other scholarsi3followed Smith by arguing that the OT use of the word bncczl in all its forms should be understood by reference to its meaning of "lord" or "possessor".
Unlike Smith, however, Paton argued that the cult of the bPcdim represented a developmental stage just below polytheism in which the beings worshipped were not gods, but spirits that inhabited natural objects such as trees, springs, rocks etc.
The OT references to btcilim could therefore be taken to refer to individual spirit-beings whose function was to be "lord" or "possessor" of a specific object, phenomenon or geographical area. Paton supported his claim on the grounds that there was no evidence that baCdbecame a proper noun prior to the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
He also argued that Baal names that included a geographic designation e. Conservative elements within Israel such as the Kenites and Nazirites attempted to avoid the bPcdim 13 14 See for example, Gilmore Both of these contentions, of course, have been disproved by recent textual discoveries.
From the Ugaritic materials, it is dear that there was a Canaanite deity named Baal. Additionally, the reference in a Kuntillet 'Ajrud inscription to "Yahweh of Samaria", demonstrates that a divine proper name could be combined with a place name. Baal and Yahweh in the Old Testament - Chapter One Page 11 so intimately connected with life in Canaan by eschewing agricultural life altogether and returning to desert nomadism and a more "traditional" Yahwism.
Ln the end, suggested Paton, Israel achieved a measure of success over the b8ciilim by absorbing them and transforming them into local manifestations of Yahweh. As a result, Yahweh ceased to be a god of Sinai and became a god of Canaan, a patron of agriculture and civilisation-a process completed by the time of David.
The worship of these local manifestations of Yahweh was one aspect of popular religion that was opposed by the prophet Hosea.Essays and Deadlines: The first paper, due in tutorial the week of October 19, is a page review of a scholarly article.
The second paper, a page analysis of a short primary source, is due in tutorial the week of November Any similar sentiments noted in the Tanach or its commentaries are explained away as outliers or exceptional circumstances, certainly not representative of the mainstream Jewish view.
5 See, for example, Taanis 22b, Bava Kama 85a, Mishna Nedarim , and Bava Metzia b. 6 See, for example, Rashba in Sefer Issur Va’Heter, chap.
In April , Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. –28).In , these lists were copied and continued in . Feb 17, · The Patristic era is the area of concentration for this paper. In a separate document I have already given a number citations from the record of the early church as reported in James McKinnon’s collection of some passages on music from early Christian literature (New Testament to c.
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