Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology Dr. In doing so, it deals with educational questions that can be investigated in a satisfactory manner, and the methods which enable such satisfactory investigation and the utility of results emanating from such investigation Dash, Since theoretical questions in education emerge from different conceptions and interpretations of social reality, different paradigms have been evolved to determine the criteria according to which one would select and define problems for inquiry. During the past century, different paradigms have taken birth due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research.
Preserved in these rocks is Interpreting correlational findings complex record of the many transgressions and regressions of the sea, as well as the fossil remains or other indications of now extinct organisms and the petrified sands and gravels of ancient beaches, sand dunes, and rivers.
Statue of seated man said to be Herodotus; in the Louvre, Paris.
Correlation. One of the best statistical tests out there, in my opinion, is the correlation. Correlation is a mutual relationship between two variables. This means that when one variable goes up. Feb 01, · The overall combined studies relationship found between job satisfaction and (good) health was indeed positive (r = , adjusted r (ř) = ). Second, a focus on practices (in the plural) avoids the mistaken impression that there is one distinctive approach common to all science—a single “scientific method”—or that uncertainty is .
Xenophanes of Colophon ? These early observations and interpretations represent the unstated origins of what was later to become a basic principle of uniformitarianismthe root of any attempt at linking the past as preserved in the rock record to the present.
Loosely stated, the principle says that the various natural phenomena observed today must also have existed in the past see below The emergence of modern geologic thought: Although quite varied opinions about the history and origins of life and of the Earth itself existed in the pre-Christian eraa divergence between Western and Eastern thought on the subject of natural history became more pronounced as Interpreting correlational findings result of the extension of Christian dogma to the explanation of natural phenomena.
Increasing constraints were placed upon the interpretation of nature in view of the teachings of the Bible. This required that the Earth be conceived of as a static, unchanging body, with a history that began in the not too distant past, perhaps as little as 6, years earlier, and an end, according to the scriptures, that was in the not too distant future.
This biblical history of the Earth left little room for interpreting the Earth as a dynamicchanging system. As such, they were considered unlikely to recur on what was thought to be an unchanging world. With the exception of a few prescient individuals such as Roger Bacon c.
He recognized that the marine organisms now found as fossils in rocks exposed in the Tuscan Hills were simply ancient animals that lived in the region when it had been covered by the sea and were eventually buried by muds along the seafloor. He also recognized that the rivers of northern Italy, flowing south from the Alps and emptying into the sea, had done so for a very long time.
In spite of this deductive approach to interpreting natural events and the possibility that they might be preserved and later observed as part of a rock outcropping, little or no attention was given to the history—namely, the sequence of events in their natural progression—that might be preserved in these same rocks.
Following from this observation, Steno concluded that the Tuscan rocks demonstrated superpositional relationships: This is the crux of what is now known as the principle of superposition. Steno put forth still another idea—that layered rocks were likely to be deposited horizontally.
Steno, NicolausNicolaus Steno, engraving, Steno's four laws of stratigraphy. The early English geologist John Stracheyfor example, produced in what may well have been the first modern geologic maps of rock strata.
He also described the succession of strata associated with coal-bearing sedimentary rocks in Somersetshire, the same region of England where he had mapped the rock exposures.
Classification of stratified rocks In Johann Gottlob Lehmann of Germany reported on the succession of rocks in the southern part of his country and the Alps, measuring and describing their compositional and spatial variation. In Italy, again in the Tuscan Hills in the vicinity of Florence, Giovanni Arduinoregarded by many as the father of Italian geology, proposed a four-component rock succession.
In addition, Arduino proposed another category, the Tertiary division, to account for poorly consolidated though stratified fossil-bearing rocks that were superpositionally older than the overlying alluvium but distinct and separate from the hard underlying stratified rocks of the Secondary.
These rock bodies would constitute formations in modern terminology. Nearly 1, kilometres miles to the east, the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas was studying rock sequences exposed in the southern Urals of eastern Russia.
Thus, by the latter part of the 18th century, the superpositional concept of rock strata had been firmly established through a number of independent investigations throughout Europe. Were the various layers at each site similar to those of other sites?
In short, was correlation among these various sites now possible? The emergence of modern geologic thought Inherent in many of the assumptions underlying the early attempts at interpreting natural phenomena in the latter part of the 18th century was the ongoing controversy between the biblical view of Earth processes and history and a more direct approach based on what could be observed and understood from various physical relationships demonstrable in nature.
A substantial amount of information about the compositional character of many rock sequences was beginning to accumulate at this time. Thus arose an increasingly vocal challenge to the Neptunist theory.
Perhaps the quintessential spokesman for the application of the scientific method in solving problems presented in the complex world of natural history, Hutton took issue with the catastrophist and Neptunist approach to interpreting rock histories and instead used deductive reasoning to explain what he saw.
The rocks of the Scottish coast and the area around Edinburgh proved the catalyst for his argument that the Earth is indeed a dynamic, ever-changing system, subject to a sequence of recurrent cycles of erosion and deposition and of subsidence and uplift. Courtesy of Lord Bruntisfield; photograph, J.
It was not easy for Hutton to popularize his ideas, however. Nonetheless, another 30 years were to pass before Neptunist and catastrophist views of Earth history were finally replaced by those grounded in a uniformitarian approach. Also, it was becoming increasingly difficult to accept certain assertions of Werner that some rock types e.Learn about analyzing, interpreting and reporting basic research results in this topic from the Free Management Library.
CHAPTER I The Problem Introduction Tertiary education or post-secondary schooling is referred to in Education Act of as “higher education leading to a degree in a specific profession or discipline.”.
Apr 15, · is as usual the place to go to get quantitative analysis of the primaries. They project Trump as getting 85 of the 91 delegates in New York, and still coming up about eighty delegates short of locking in a victory before the convention.
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5 Analyzing and Interpreting Findings OVERVIEW Qualitative research begins with questions, and its ultimate purpose is learning. To inform the questions, the researcher collects data. Data are like building blocks that, when. Computational detection and understanding of empathy is an important factor in advancing human-computer interaction.
Yet to date, textbased empathy prediction has the following major limitations: It underestimates the psychological complexity of the phenomenon, adheres to a weak notion of ground truth where empathic states are ascribed by third parties, and lacks a shared corpus.