Chemistry Tutorial by University of Arizona Review the basics of chemistry you'll need to know to study biology. Large Molecules by University of Arizona Learn about structures and properties of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. Clinical Correlates of pH Levels by University of Arizona Learn how metabolic acidosis or alkalosis can arise and how these conditions shift the bicarbonate equilibrium.
It indicates that early humans had an elementary knowledge of chemistry. History of ferrous metallurgy and History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent The earliest recorded metal employed by humans seems to be gold which can be found free or "native".
Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. However, for millennia fire was seen simply as a mystical force that could transform one substance into another burning wood, or boiling water while producing heat and light.
Fire affected many aspects of early societies. These ranged from the simplest facets of everyday life, such as cooking and habitat lighting, to more advanced technologies, such as pottery, bricks, and melting of metals to make tools. It was fire that led to the discovery of glass and the purification of metals which in turn gave way to the rise of metallurgy.
Bronze Age Certain metals can be recovered from their ores by simply heating the rocks in a fire: However, as often happens with the study of prehistoric times, the ultimate beginnings cannot be clearly defined and new discoveries are ongoing. Mining areas of the ancient Middle East.
Yellow area stands for arsenic bronzewhile grey area stands for tin bronze. These first metals were single ones or as found. By combining copper and tin, a superior metal could be made, an alloy called bronzea major technological shift which began the Bronze Age about BC.
The Bronze Age was period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze.
These naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. After the Bronze Age, the history of metallurgy was marked by armies seeking better weaponry. Countries in Eurasia prospered when they made the superior alloys, which, in turn, made better armor and better weapons.
Iron Age The extraction of iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult than copper or tin. While iron is not better suited for tools than bronze until steel was discoverediron ore is much more abundant and common than either copper or tin.
So iron was much more often available locally without have to trade for it. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines.
Historical developments in ferrous metallurgy can be found in a wide variety of past cultures and civilizations. This includes the ancient and medieval kingdoms and empires of the Middle East and Near East, ancient Iranancient Egyptancient Nubiaand Anatolia TurkeyAncient NokCarthagethe Greeks and Romans of ancient Europe, medieval Europe, ancient and medieval China, ancient and medieval India, ancient and medieval Japan, amongst others.
Many applications, practices, and devices associated or involved in metallurgy were established in ancient China, such as the innovation of the blast furnacecast ironhydraulic -powered trip hammersand double acting piston bellows.
Atomism DemocritusGreek philosopher of atomistic school.rganic Reactions. These are especially useful for the older tests.
The "acorn book" states that organic compounds may show up as examples, but organic reactions are pretty restricted. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop. There are two versions of this current textbook, both containing the same information but organized differently: the "Chemistry-first" version begins with actual "chemistry" — that is, chemical equations and reactions.
Stoichiometry Lab: The Determination of the Mass of Product of a Chemical Reaction 2 2. Using your Bunsen burner, gently heat the beaker and its contents until . Here is a collection of study cards for my AP and General Chemistry classes.
There are four cards per page. Each set of cards is saved as an Adobe Acrobat® file.
Moles and Percents Why do we need Moles? A chemical mole, or mol, is a unit of measure, just like a gram or an ounce. It is used internationally so that all chemists speak the same measurement language. With the ever-increasing need for innovators, problem finders, and designers of materials, pharmaceuticals, and even new fuels, comes the need for individuals skilled in the science practices and knowledgeable about chemistry.