What evidence was the guideline based on? It was developed using the NICE public health programme process.
Inclusion in the American Public Schools: There has been a rapid rise in the number of students with disabilities who are spending their school day in a general education classroom under the Scotland child committee purpose social work essay of full inclusion.
The practice of inclusion came about as a natural outgrowth of the Mainstreaming movement of the 's. Inclusion is purported to be based on the rights of the students and the social benefits that they receive from being in a general education classroom.
There are many who see this as a solution to the problem of how to best educate children with disabilities.
On the other hand, there are those who believe that this practice is based solely on the feelings of what the inclusionists see as socially correct, and not on any real benefit to the students involved. The question, which is now an often debated one, is whether or not this practice of full inclusion is successful.
Is including children with special needs in the general education classroom beneficial to their education? Since we cannot expect to "cure" or "fix" these kids who have disabilities, how can we educate them to their fullest capacity?
The goal of educating these students with disabilities should be no different than the goals of educating the students who are in general education, which is that we should educate them in such a way as to help them realize their full potential. This is where the problem and controversy arises in regard to students who have disabilities; how best to do this?
To fully understand the issue of inclusion in the American Public School, we must examine the history of inclusion, the laws regarding the education of students with disabilities, and what some of the experts in education have to say about it. Only after a full examination of the facts can we decide for ourselves which is most beneficial and appropriate in the education of students with disabilities today: Inclusion is defined as "a professional belief that students with disabilities should be integrated into general education classrooms whether or not they can meet traditional curricular standards and should be full members of those classrooms" Friend and Bursuck,p.
Just how did the practice of inclusion come about? Modern day special education began in the 's after several hundred years where we saw thinking change from the time prior to where the disabled were thought to be "demon possessed"; to the time in the 's where public thinking was largely based on the misinterpretation of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and the disenchanting effects of the Civil War; to theearly 's where the work of scientists such as Freud, Kanner, and Binet began to impact the public thinking; to the post-war era of the 's when special education was shaped by the work of Bettleheim, Redl and Wineman, and Bower and many categories of disabilities became identified.
From the 's through we saw a real take off in public funding, the beginning of many organizations to assist the disabled, and the emergence of a number of conceptual models of special education. Modern special education in the 's was from the point of view that because students with disabilities were so different in both their problems and abilities, that it did not make sense to treat all of these students the same.
Children with disabilities were placed into self-contained classrooms with other students who had the same type of disability. The programs were categorical and the teachers were those with a degree in special education who had a specialty in a specific area of disabilities.
The idea was to get these kids in school and get them in a program tailored specifically to their disability. In the early 's parents wanted to be assured of a suitable education for their children, so Public Lawthe Education for Handicapped Act EHAwas passed which set guidelines for the services of special education Friend and Bursuck, Inthe federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA was passed which marked the dawn of what is commonly referred to as "mainstreaming".
This was a practice designed to get the students with disabilities out of their categorical classrooms and back into general education for "specials" Music, Art, and Physical Educationbut for the most part the students were still separate and segregated within their schools.
Proponents of mainstreaming were of the mind that social behavior does not occur outside of social contact and therefore, students with disabilities should be with their non-disabled peers.
This involved the physical integration, functional integration, and social integration of the students. So, mainstreaming went from a time where we just wanted to get these kids in school, to a time where we mainstreamed them for "specials", to a time where they were mainstreamed to become a part of the school.
Thus the argument became that if we can include these kids with disabilities some of the time, why not include them all of the time? This was the basis for our current trend toward full inclusion of all students with disabilities, regardless of their disability or abilities.
Full inclusion is based on the rights of the students to be in the general classroom and the perceived social benefits that being in that classroom provides. There is, however, a difference in the social integration we saw in early mainstreaming versus that which we see in today's inclusion practices; the social integration of the 80's was done under highly controlled situations, while the social integration of full inclusion is not controlled.
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